By James W. Redhouse
The Ottoman Language is the main hugely polished department of the nice Turkish tongue, that is spokon, with dialectic adaptations, around the entire breadth, approximately, of the center zone of the continent of Asia, impinging into Europe, even, within the Ottoman provinces, and likewise, in Southern Russia, as much as the frontiers of the previous nation of Poland. The Ottoman language is, in its grammar and vocabulary, essentially Turkish. It has, even though, followed, and keeps an increasing number of to undertake, as required, an enormous variety of Arabic, Porsian, and overseas phrases (Greek, Armenian, Slavonic, Hungarian, Italian, French, English, etc.), including using the various grammatical ideas of the Arabic and Porsian, that are given as Turkish ideas within the following pages, their beginning being in each one case special. the good Turkish language, turkje, Ottoman and non-Ottoman, has been classed, via eu writers as one of many " agglutinative" languages ; no longer inflTable of Contents Preface ; be aware on id of Alphabets xii; bankruptcy I Letters and ORTnooiurnr; part I quantity, Order, Forma, and Names of; Letters 1; Synopsis of Arabic, Greek, and Latin; Letters four; ? II Phonetic Values of Letters, Vowel-Points, Orthographic indicators, Transliteration, Ottoman Euphony 15; bankruptcy IL Ottoman Accidence; part I Nouns considerable fifty one; ? II Nouns Adjective GS; ? III Numerals seventy four; , IV Pronouns eighty two; vi; desk of contents; part V Demonstratives 8b; ? VI Interrogatives 89; ? VII Relative Pronouns ninety; ? VIIIDerivation of Verbs ninety two; (Table) ninety four; ? IX Conjugation of Verbs ; Moods; Tenses ;; Participles; Verbal Nouns; Gerunds ninety nine; ? X Numbers aiul Tersons a hundred and fifteen ? XI advanced different types of Verbs , 119; ? XII First advanced type a hundred and twenty ? XIII moment ? ? one hundred twenty five; ? XIV 3rd ? 129; ? XV mixed (Turkish) Conjugation 133; ? XVI detrimental and Impotential Conjugations , one hundred thirty five; ? XVII Dubitative, capability, and Facile Verbs 141; ? XVII I Verb sizeable a hundred and forty four; ?
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39 Romans, this excerpt shows, were persistent. In a militaristic society the ultimate form of this persistence was self-sacrifice for one’s family or, on a larger scale, the state, both of which one protected from enemies who challenged the status quo. This sacrifice of the self was specifically encouraged. To Romans, their strength and courage set them apart from other ethnic groups. But there were also customs that “inspire[d] the youth with enthusiasm for such exploits,” that is, fighting and persistence until victory was won.
4. 12 / re publican rome’s rhetorical patte rn The gods, in turn, made the Romans successful. A growing empire was the result of appropriate behavior. When the cohesion of the state structure was threatened, the cause was sought in the religious sphere, and the remedy was found there as well. Religion, keeping the reciprocal relationship between Romans and their gods intact, was one of Rome’s defining features. Among many other religious customs, Numa is said to have introduced the Salian priests of Mars.
In the time of the Scipiones. . ”51 Verres took every chance to propel himself forward. Political positions and provincial assignments were springboards to acquire wealth and artifacts. The latter signaled wealth. Loyalty and reciprocal respect (fides and pietas respectively) did not guide Verres’s actions. 52 Sicily was Verres’s personal playground, his land of unlimited possibilities, his to terrorize and deplete. It so happened that the senate of the post-Sullan period was weak and lacking in leadership.