By Ángel S. Sanz

ISBN-10: 3642180914

ISBN-13: 9783642180910

Trajectory-based formalisms are an intuitively beautiful approach of describing quantum tactics simply because they permit using "classical" options. starting at an introductory point appropriate for college students, this two-volume monograph provides (1) the basics and (2) the functions of the trajectory description of easy quantum techniques. this primary quantity is focussed at the classical and quantum heritage essential to comprehend the basics of Bohmian mechanics, which are thought of the most subject of this paintings. Extensions of the formalism to the fields of open quantum structures and to optics also are proposed and discussed.

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**Extra info for A Trajectory Description of Quantum Processes. I. Fundamentals: A Bohmian Perspective**

**Example text**

This is a consequence of the well-known fluctuation–dissipation theorem that Callen and Welton proved in 1951. The linear response theory is precisely based on this theorem. The linear response theory describes the changes that a small external field induces on the macroscopic properties of a system at equilibrium. Consider such an external field is turned on at some initial time t0 and it is treated as a perturbation. The total Hamiltonian describing this effect is expressed as a sum of two terms, H = H0 + H1 , where the zeroth–order Hamiltonian, H0 , describes the system equilibrium state and the interaction Hamiltonian, H1 , introduces a time-dependence.

At higher energies, according to the KAM theorem, the tori “break down” and orbits appear as sets of points scattered throughout the PSOS, which enclose chains of stability region or islands. Actually, in the lower panels (for energies close to the onset of dissociation), chains of islands can be seen. Chaos plays a fundamental role in areas such as non-equilibrium statistical mechanics, where it provides a connection between the irreversible phenomenological macroscopic equations and the reversible Hamiltonian equations [61].

92) with Ajk = Ak j . Although the Ajk are just numbers, in general the mjk may depend on the coordinates [22]. 91), the mjk is expanded around the equilibrium positions, then keeping only the zeroth-order, mjk (ql0 ) (from now on mjk will denote this value). 93) j which, by means of solutions of the type q j (t) = a j ei(ωt−δ) , can also be expressed as (Ajk − ω2 mjk )a j = 0. 94). The associated equation is called the characteristic or secular equation and its solutions, the eigenfrequencies ωr, describe the oscillation normal modes.