By Grigori Sidorov, Francisco Velasquez, Efstathios Stamatatos, Alexander Gelbukh (auth.), Ildar Batyrshin, Miguel González Mendoza (eds.)
The two-volume set LNAI 7629 and LNAI 7630 constitutes the refereed lawsuits of the eleventh Mexican overseas convention on man made Intelligence, MICAI 2012, held in San Luis Potosí, Mexico, in October/November 2012. The eighty revised papers offered have been rigorously reviewed and chosen from 224 submissions. the second one quantity contains forty papers concentrating on delicate computing. The papers are geared up within the following topical sections: common language processing; evolutionary and nature-inspired metaheuristic algorithms; neural networks and hybrid clever structures; fuzzy platforms and probabilistic versions in determination making.
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Extra info for Advances in Computational Intelligence: 11th Mexican International Conference on Artificial Intelligence, MICAI 2012, San Luis Potosí, Mexico, October 27 – November 4, 2012. Revised Selected Papers, Part II
5 Table 1. g. apposition), and (2) - marking a string in the hypothesis that corresponds to the output of the inferential process. The annotation in the hypothesis is done using a dedicated reference to scheme. Example Consider the following pair from RTE 2: – T: The anti-terrorist court found two men guilty of murdering Shapour Bakhtiar and his secretary Sorush Katibeh, who were found with their throats cut in August 1991. – H: Shapour Bakhtiar died in 1991. The entailment patterns in this example can be explained by appealing to the semantics of APP, CONJ and RMOD, as follows: – APP: The appositive modiﬁcation in Shapour Bakhtiar and his secretary Sorush Katibeh, who were found with their throats cut in August 1991 licenses the inference that Shapour Bakhtiar and his secretary Sorush Katibeh were found with their throats cut in August 1991.
Nor does it aim to uncover all the connections between these phenomena, and accordingly, it does not specify the order by which the inferential steps are carried out in each particular case. 3 Corpus Description This section details our annotation strategy, the inference principles it is based on, the annotation work-ﬂow, and some quantitative data on the targeted constructions and inter-annotator agreement. 1 Phenomena Annotated The choice of phenomena for annotation is based on the following criteria: Semantic Annotation for Textual Entailment Recognition 15 1.
On the other hand, the text T = Mary lives in Europe does not entail a hypothesis H = Mary lives in London. RTE is useful for many NLP tasks. For example, in text summarization (sometimes denoted by SUM) a summary of a document should be entailed by its contents; paraphrases can be seen as mutual entailment between the two expressions; in Information Extraction (IE), the extracted information should also be entailed by the documents; in Question Answering (QA), the answer obtained for a question must be entailed by the supporting snippets of text.